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Naio Biology & Ecology


Naio in Hawaiʻi

Naio grows on all the main Hawaiian Islands 

from coastal areas and lava fields to

 dry, mesic, and wet forests.

Naio can be found near sea level 

up to 5,000-7,000 feet. 

Most common on the slopes of Maunakea, 

Maunaloa, and Haleakalā.

Identifying Naio

Bark is dark gray and grooved

Leaves are alternate, narrow-oblong, pointed, variable margins and hairs

Flowers are small and white; can also be light pink or purple

Buds bloom sporadically throughout the year


Growing Naio

Naio is a medium to fast growing tree and can grow several feet a year. 

Fruits should be collected when they are soft and ripe. Mature fruits can be white, tan, or purple in color.


After collecting, separate seed from fruit pulp.

Soak seeds in water to prep for sowing into germination trays. Germination timing varies with the seed preparation options.

Naio can be planted to diversify existing forests, reforest where native forests used to be, as well as planted for landscaping. 

Wherever planted, it is important for naio to have ample sunlight, nutrients, and well drained soil.

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